Plasma
Plasma is a layer 2 scaling framework that enables the creation of several noncustodial child chains (called sidechains) branching out of one parent chain (called the mainchain). All the sidechains are capable of executing elaborate operations in a faster and more cost-effective manner with limited interaction with the Ethereum mainchain [7]. Each of these sidechains has its own mechanism for block validation. However, to ensure the overall security of the network operations, each of these sidechains has an operator that periodically commits a single hash containing multiple state updates to the mainchain [8].
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